Recent Posts



July 2014
« Jan    





8 Rencana Pengembangan Kapasitas Building 2011

1.     Pengembangan  ICT Online Kurikulum Integration Course
2.     Pelatihan Softskill Mahasiswa tingkat I bidang ICT Basic Science
3.     Standarisasi dan sertifikasi  SNI   19-17025-2000
4.     Lokakarya Kurikulum Akademik
5.     Evaluasi bahan ajar dan modul praktikum
6.     Pemantapan audit internal dan Eksternal ISO 9001:2008
7.     Pelatihan ICT lanjutan  untuk mendukung pembelajaran berbasis SCL
8.     Pelatihan digital pedagogic para dosen/staf  PPBS

Pengembangan ICT online Curriculum Integration Course

Pada hari ini, Kamis 29 Juli 2010 dilaksanakan Lokakarya Pengembangan ICT online Curriculum Integration Course. Secara umum kegiatan dibagi dalam 3 sesi besar, yaitu: Pembukaan (Prof. Dr. Wawang Suratno/Kepala PPBS), Sesi Panel dan Praktik Weblog dan E-learning). Dalam sesi panel diisi oleh 4 pembicara:

1. Pengembangan ICT online Curriculum Integration Course (PPBS: drh. Dwi Cipto B. MS.)

2. Pengenalan Program Kerja E-learning Development Centre (Dra. Jenny Ratna Suminar, MS)

3. Disain Pembelajaran Berbasis Blended Learning (Hanna Rizmadewi, S.Kep., Ners., MN)

4. Support System untuk E-Learning UNPAD (Eddy Nurmanto, S.Si, M.T/Direktur UPT D-Cystem)

Selain 4 pembicara di atas kegiatan ini dihadiri oleh Pengelola PPBS dan para dosen dari 4 bidang studi (Matematika, Fisika, Kimia dan Biologi). Tujuan dari kegiatan ini adalah untuk: mengatasi kesenjangan teknologi digital dalam: membantu usaha pemanfaatan potensi ICT untuk pendidikan dan pembelajaran khususnya dalam pengembangan ilmu dasar, meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan sarana dan prasarana ICT di PPBS. Disamping itu Program Online Curriculum Integration Course bagi dosen juga diperlukan agar kurikulum dan sistim pendidikan dalam ilmu dasar di PPBS lebih mudah dipahami oleh mahasiswa, sehingga dapat meningkatkan minat dan kecintaan mahasiswa dalam ilmu dasar, Penguasaan dan pengembangan ICT.

Selamat Berlokakarya. TS

Lokakarya PPBS

Lokakarya Evaluasi Dan Pengembangan Kurikulum Basic Science 2010 telah dilaksanakan pada hari Senin 5 Juli 2010. Kegiatan ini merupakan lanjutan lokakarya  juli 2009 (yang melaporkan kegiatan PBM semester genap 2007/2008 dan semester ganjil 2008/2009 dan kurikulum Fisika Dasar di PPBS). Dalam lokakarya tahun 2010 ini akan dilaporkan evaluasi kegiatan belajar mengajar semester genap t.a. 2008/2009 sampai dengan semester ganjil t.a. 2009/2010 serta perkembangan pengembangan kurikulum Fisika Dasar di PPBS Unpad Bandung.

Read more »

Counting Cells in Seconds.

A lensless imaging system finds and recognizes the shadows of T cells and bacteria.

By Katherine Bourzac.
Clinical tests for identifying and counting normal and bacterial cells in blood and other samples can tell doctors the source of a bacterial infection or help them monitor the immune health of people with HIV. But conventional cell counting is costly and time-consuming. A simple, lensless imaging system being developed by researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, uses a chip like the one found in a digital camera to count and distinguish different types of cells in blood and drinking water, and simple algorithms to identify and count the cells. The imager could be carried in a device the size of a cell phone and used to monitor water quality and to provide cheap diagnostics in rural and underdeveloped areas.

The imager can find small numbers of cells in a large, unprocessed sample. A water or blood sample is loaded onto a glass slide above a light-sensing chip identical to those used in consumer digital cameras; then it’s illuminated from above. “What we record is not an image but a diffraction signature,” says Aydogan Ozcan, an assistant professor of electrical engineering at UCLA who’s developing the cell counter. Unlike conventional microscopes, which take detailed pictures of very small samples, Ozcan’s diffraction technique is rapid and inexpensive. The blurred, pixellated images created by his cell counter are of such low quality that Ozcan doesn’t call the system a microscope. But these images contain just enough information to identify and count cells, which is all that’s needed for many clinical diagnostic applications.

Cell counting is usually done using machines called flow cytometers, which cost up to hundreds of thousands of dollars. The technique must be performed in the lab and requires multiple steps. Conventional microscopes can also be used to find and count cells, but microscopes are costly and the process is complex. “If you wanted to screen for a few bacterial cells in a few milliliters of water, you’d need to do hundreds of tests with a regular microscope,” says Ozcan.

In Ozcan’s method, as light passes through a given type of cell, the light diffracts or bends in a characteristic way. Each cell type has a unique diffraction signature that depends on its size, shape, and an optical quality called refractive index. Ozcan has compiled a library of characteristic diffraction signatures for different cell types. After his cell counter takes an image, it quickly consults his library to determine the number of cells of each type in the sample. These calculations don’t require much processing power and could be done in a mobile device such as a cell phone, says Ozcan.

The counter has high throughput–while it’s capable of detecting small numbers of cells, it can image as many as 100,000 cells in a 20-centimeter-squared field of view in one second. The counter can, for example, determine the concentration of red blood cells in an unprocessed blood sample with 90 percent accuracy. Red blood cell count can be used to diagnose anemia, to monitor malaria, and to monitor patients’ responses to chemotherapy.

“What [Ozcan] is doing has potential for hand-held devices that work in the field,” says Alexander Revzin, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering at the University of California, Davis. Rezvin has begun a collaboration with Ozcan to develop a cheap, diffraction-based test for counting T cells in HIV patients–a measure of the health of the immune system that’s used to determine when to start drug treatment and whether it’s working. “Obviously a poor-resource setting is one target, but it doesn’t just need to be used in Africa if this is a robust technology,” says Rezvin.

“This is a very practical technique,” says Mehmet Fatih Yanik, an assistant professor in the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT. “Ozcan’s work can significantly reduce the cost and effort required for cell counting, allowing its commonplace use even in Third World countries for a variety of medical applications.”

So far, Ozcan’s group has developed protype cell counters on the lab benchtop. Next, he says, he’ll convert a cell phone into a mobile diagnostic lab by taking out the camera lens and putting in the imaging chip and a mechanical system to load microscope slides.


The Genetics of High-Altitude Living.

by Ann Gibbons.

Call it Sherpa envy. Mountain climbers have long wished they could discover—and bottle in a drug—how Tibetans live and work high in the Himalayas without getting altitude sickness. Now researchers have discovered two new gene variants that help Tibetans use oxygen more efficiently than people who live at low altitudes; natural selection favored these variants in Tibetans, whose ancestors have lived at high altitude for thousands of years.

Researchers have been mystified as to how Tibetans have thrived at altitudes over 4400 meters (14,435 feet). Some high-altitude people, such as Andean highlanders, have an adaptation that adds more oxygen-rich hemoglobin to their blood. But many highland Tibetans, researchers have found, have less hemoglobin in their blood. That helps them avoid serious problems caused by too much hemoglobin, but Tibetans with this so-called decreased hemoglobin phenotype must somehow use small amounts of oxygen efficiently to get enough of it to their limbs while exercising at high altitude. Researchers have been unable to pinpoint the genes that are responsible for this remarkable balancing act in their blood.

In a report published online today in Science, a team of Chinese and American researchers identified variants of two genes involved in oxygen processing that are found in most Tibetan highlanders. The researchers used two methods to search for these genes. First, they scanned DNA registries for genes that might be involved in regulating oxygen in the blood and identified 247 candidate genes that vary in different populations. Then they analyzed segments of DNA that include those 247 genes in 31 unrelated Tibetans, 45 Chinese, and 45 Japanese lowland people whose DNA was genotyped in the HapMap Project. By identifying regions that had a characteristic signature of being strongly altered by natural selection, they were able to identify relatively new gene variants that had swept through highland Tibetans, but not Chinese or Japanese lowlanders. They finally homed in on 10 genes, including two, EGLN1 and PPARA, that were found at the highest frequency in Tibetans who had the least oxygen in their blood.

The researchers found that people who have more copies of the gene variants (by inheriting a copy of each advantageous variant from both parents), had the least amount of oxygen in their blood and used it more efficiently than people without either variant, or only one copy from one parent. “Tibetans with these genes appear to be much more efficient with the oxygen they have,” says senior author Lynn Jorde, a human geneticist at the University of Utah School of Medicine in Salt Lake City.

The next step is to do functional studies to see how these gene variants actually regulate oxygen levels.

“This is a groundbreaking paper,” says geneticist Anna Di Rienzo of the University of Chicago in Illinois. “These genes seem to have relatively large phenotypic effects.”

But although these genes apparently lower the level of oxygen in the blood, they are responsible for only part of the story of the Tibetans’ adaptation and would not by themselves make a beneficial drug for climbers. “Just lowering your hemoglobin alone would make you less well adapted to high altitude,” points out Jorde. Researchers are still searching for the genes that orchestrate how Tibetans transport low levels of oxygen so efficiently to their tissues—a process that may involve using nitric oxide to boost their blood volume.


Nanotechnology Applications in Food and Food Processing: Innovative Green Approaches, Opportunities and Uncertainties for Global Market


Nanoscience and nanotechnology are new frontiers of this century and food nanotechnology is an emerging technology. Their applications to the agriculture and food sector are relatively recent compared with their use in drug delivery and pharmaceuticals. Many scientists and engineers have recognized well the potential of nanotechnology to lead all the food industries in the 21st century. Even though successful applications of nanotechnology to foods are still limited, some basic concepts based on nanoscale have been established well. In food engineering field, two major applications related to nanotechnology, that is, food nanosensing and food nanostructured ingredients are being expected. In the former field, better food quality and safety evaluation can be achieved by using nanotechnology. Advances in technologies, such as DNA microarrays, microelectromechanical systems, and microfluidics, will enable the realization of the potential of nanotechnology for food applications. In the latter, food processing can be largely improved in the aspects of smart delivery of nutrients, bioseparation of proteins, rapid sampling of biological and chemical contaminants, nanoencapsulation of nutraceuticals, solubilization, delivery, and color in food systems; these being some of the emerging topics of nanotechnology for food and agriculture. Meanwhile, food nanotechnology as a new technology is requiring reviews of potentially adverse effects as well as many positive effects. In this review, we intended to cover some of the developments in nanotechnology and their applicability to food and nutraceuticals systems. It presents some of the nanoscale-sized structures that are uniquely relevant to the food industry, the different food manufacturing techniques that could benefit from nanotechnology, and nanotechnology’s applicability to the formulation and storage of food, together with identifying the outstanding challenges.

Keywords: food; food packaging; food processing; nanotechnology; nanosensors; nutraceuticals

Author: R. Ravichandran. From

International Journal of Green Nanotechnology: Physics and Chemistry, Volume 1, Issue 2 May 2010 , pages P72 – P96

The (r)evolution of SINE versus LINE distributions in primate genomes: Sex chromosomes are important

The densities of transposable elements (TEs) in the human genome display substantial variation both within individual chromosomes and among chromosome types (autosomes and the two sex chromosomes). Finding an explanation for this variability has been challenging, especially in light of genome landscapes unique to the sex chromosomes. Here, using a multiple regression framework, we investigate primate Alu and L1 densities shaped by regional genome features and location on a particular chromosome type.

As a result of our analysis, first, we build statistical models explaining up to 79% and 44% of variation in Alu and L1 element density, respectively. Second, we analyze sex chromosome versus autosome TE densities corrected for regional genomic effects. We discover that sex-chromosome bias in Alu and L1 distributions not only persists after accounting for these effects, but even presents differences in patterns, confirming preferential Alu integration in the male germline, yet likely integration of L1s in both male and female germlines or in early embryogenesis.

Additionally, our models reveal that local base composition (measured by GC content and density of L1 target sites) and natural selection (inferred via density of most conserved elements) are significant to predicting densities of L1s. Interestingly, measurements of local double-stranded breaks (a 13-mer associated with genome instability) strongly correlate with densities of Alu elements; little evidence was found for the role of recombination-driven deletion in driving TE distributions over evolutionary time. Thus, Alu and L1 densities have been influenced by the combination of distinct local genome landscapes and the unique evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes.

Sumber: Genom Research. By. Erika and Kateryna D. Makova. Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5558, Villeurbanne F-69622, France.

Intelligent Tutoring Systems (Guest Editorial)

Nkambou, R. (2010). Intelligent Tutoring Systems (Guest Editorial). Educational Technology & Society, 13 (1), 1–2.

Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) are meant to provide useful tutoring services for assisting the student. These
services include coaching, assisting, guiding, helping, and tracking the student during problem-solving situations. To
offer high-quality tutoring services, an ITS must be able to establish the correct student profile, then understand and
diagnose the student cognitive as well as its affective state. This special issue of Educational Technology & Society
presents recent works dealing with those matters.

Extracting Procedural Models Using Educational Data Mining
The main goal of an intelligent tutoring system is to actively provide guidance to the student in problem-solving
situations. Relevant feedback should be founded on a thorough understanding and diagnosis of student responses.
Building such understanding and diagnosis model is a difficult issue that is also a time-intensive process involving
human experts. This issue becomes even more difficult in ill-defined domains where an explicit representation of the
training task is hard, if not impossible, to set up. Educational data-mining (EDM) brings some promising solutions to
this issue.

You will find in this special issue two EDM-based solutions proposed for coping with this problem. Each of these
solutions consists of a model that can constantly learn from new learner or user data and thus, guaranties that the
tutor provides an up-to-date feedback.

In one hand, Barnes and Stamper propose a novel application of Markov decision processes (MDPs) to automatically
generate hints for an intelligent tutor that learns. This approach eases the process of building the understanding and
diagnosis model of student actions. The authors extracted MDPs from four semesters of student solutions created in a
logic proof tutor, and calculated the probability of being able to generate hints for students at any point in a given
problem. The results indicate that extracted MDPs and their proposed hint-generating functions are able to provide
hints over 80% of the time. The results also indicate that they can provide valuable tradeoffs between hint specificity
and the amount of data used to create an MDP.

In the other hand, Fournier-Viger et al. present a novel framework for adapting the behavior of intelligent agents
based on human experts’ data. The framework consists of an extended sequential pattern-mining algorithm that, in
combination with association rule discovery techniques, is used to extract temporal patterns and relationships from
the behavior of human learners of multiple profiles, executing a procedural task. The proposed framework has been
integrated within CanadarmTutor, an intelligent tutoring system aimed at helping students solve procedural problems
that involve moving a robotic arm in a complex virtual environment. CanadarmTutor acts in an ill-defined domain
where the problem space associated with a given task consists of an infinite number of paths. The framework was
used to improve the behavior of a cognitive agent that adapts its decision by learning from data gathered during past
cognitive cycles. The results of the experimentation demonstrate the benefits of the framework for tutoring systems
acting in ill-defined domains.

Filling the Gap Between Student Profiles Through Metacognitive Problem-Solving Strategy
One benefit of tutoring is of narrowing, even eliminating the gap between High and Low learners. Low learners are
those who are more sensitive to variations in learning environments. Effective ITS should narrow the gap as much as
possible without pulling the High learners down. In their paper, Chi and VanLehn present a study that investigates
this issue. The study involved two groups of college students who studied probability first and then physics. The
experimental group studied probability with Pyrenees, an ITS that explicitly taught and required them to employ a

general problem-solving strategy; the control group studied probability with Andes, an ITS that does not teach or
require any particular strategy. During subsequent physics instruction, both groups used Andes.
Results showed that an Intelligent Tutoring System teaching a domain-independent problem-solving strategy indeed
closed the gap between High and Low learners, not only in the domain where it was taught (probability) but also in a
second domain where the strategy had not been taught (physics). The strategy includes two main components: one is
solving problems via Backward-Chaining (BC) from goals to givens, named the BC-strategy, and the other is
drawing students’ attention on the characteristics of each individual domain, named the principle-emphasis skill.
Evidence suggests that the Low experimental group transferred the principle-emphasis skill to physics while the
High experimental apparently already possessed it and thus mainly transferred the BC-strategy.

Coping with Affective Issues in Tutoring Systems
Considering learners’ affective responses during learning episodes is a key issue for more effective tutoring dialogue.
Hence, recent work has begun to investigate the emotions experienced during learning in a variety of environments.
McQuiggan et al. contribute to this effort by investigating the likelihood of affective transitions that occur
throughout narrative-centered learning experiences. The study was conducted with the Crystal Island, a learning
environment in which narrative is used as a mechanism to contextualize learning.

The results suggest two directions for future work. First, they call for investigation of what type of feedback
pedagogical agents should consider when empathy does not promote desirable affective states for learning. For
instance, reactive empathy was likely to encourage transitions to either flow or frustration. Second, analysis of
individual differences is necessary to determine the affective transitions common across a variety of demographics
such as gender, but also across learning attributes such as efficacy, goal orientation, interest, and abilities to selfregulate
both learning and affect.

Diskusi Ilmiah


Kamis, 6 Mei 2010. Pukul 09.00 sd 12.00. di PPBS Unpad. Diskusi hangat antara Tim Pengelola PPBS dengan tamu dari Bappeda Sumedang, Dinas Pendidikan Kabupaten Sumedang, beberapa camat dari Kabupaten Sumedang dan Litbang Pendidikan Kab. Sumedang.

Topik Diskusi: Cyberdeducation, dayasaing daerah dan peningkatan sumberdaya dan kualitas pendidikan ilmu dasar.

Science has promised us truth. It has never promised us either peace or happiness (Le Bone).

Hari Pendidikan Nasional

Mengucapkan Hari Pendidikan Nasional, 2 Mei 2010. Majulah Unpad, Majulah Indonesiaku.

Super Motivasi/Bimbingan Belajar


Sehubungan dengan akan diselenggarakannya kegiatan “Super Motivasi/Bimbingan Belajar persiapan SNPTN (Seleksi Nasional Masuk Perguruan Tinggi Negeri) bagi  siswa SMA kelas XII masyarakat sekitar kampus Unpad Jatinangor”.  Panitia Pusat kegiatan tersebut akan mengadakan pembukaan pada:

Hari/tanggal      : Kamis, 29 April 2010

Waktu                  : Pukul 14.00 – selesai

Tempat                : Aula PPBS

Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut di atas maka dimohon pada bagian administrasi akademik mempersiapkan layanan untuk kegiatan tersebut di atas.

Biophysicist identifies parameters for biochemical networks, distills system behavior into simple equivalent dynamics

Centuries ago, scientists began reducing the physics of the universe into a few, key laws described by a handful of parameters. Such simple descriptions have remained elusive for complex biological systems – until now.

Emory University biophysicist Ilya Nemenman has identified parameters for several biochemical networks that distill the entire behavior of these systems into simple equivalent dynamics. The discovery may hold the potential to streamline the development of drugs and diagnostic tools, by simplifying the research models.

The resulting paper, now available online, will be published in the March issue of Physical Biology.

“It appears that the details of the complexity of these biological systems don’t matter, as long as some aggregate property, which we’ve calculated, remains the same,” says Nemenman, associate professor of physics and biology. He conducted the analysis with Golan Bel and Brian Munsky of the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

‘A beautiful result’

The simplicity of the discovery makes it “a beautiful result,” Nemenman says. “We hope that this theoretical finding will also have practical applications.”

He cites the air molecules moving about his office: “All of the crazy interactions of these molecules hitting each other boils down to a simple behavior: An ideal gas law. You could take the painstaking route of studying the dynamics of every molecule, or you could simply measure the temperature, volume and pressure of the air in the room. The second method is clearly easier, and it gives you just as much information.”

Nemenman wanted to find similar parameters for the incredibly complex dynamics of cellular networks, involving hundreds, or even thousands, of variables among different interacting molecules. Among the key questions: What determines which features in these networks are relevant? And if they have simple equivalent dynamics, did nature choose to make them so complex in order to fulfill a specific biological function? Or is the unnecessary complexity a “fossil record” of the evolutionary heritage?

A KPR scheme

For the Physical Biology paper, Nemenman and co-authors investigated these questions in the context of a kinetic proofreading (KPR) scheme.

KPR is the mechanism a cell uses for optimal quality control as it makes protein. KPR was predicted during the 1970s and it applies to most cellular assembly processes. It involves hundreds of steps, and each step may have different parameters.

A key aggregate rate

Nemenman and his colleagues wondered if the KPR scheme could be described more simply. “Our calculations confirmed that there is, in fact, a key aggregate rate,” he says. “The whole behavior of the system boils down to just one parameter.”

That means that, instead of painstakingly testing or measuring every rate in the process, you can predict the error and completion rate of a system by looking at a single aggregate parameter.

Charted on a graph, the aggregate behavior appears as a straight line amid a tangle of curving ones. “The larger and more complex the system gets, the more the aggregate behavior is visible,” Nemenman says. “The completion time gets simpler and simpler as the system size goes up.”

In addition to the KPR scheme, the paper reports similar results for other biochemical kinetics networks, including a reversible linear pathway and a general multi-step completion process.

Simplified models

Nemenman is now collaborating with Emory theoretical biologist Rustom Antia, to see if the discovery can shed light on the processes of immune cells. In particular, they are interested in the malfunction of certain immune receptors involved in most allergic reactions.

“We may be able to simplify the model for these immune receptors from about 3,000 steps to three steps,” Nemenman says. “You wouldn’t need a supercomputer to test different chemical compounds on the receptors, because you don’t need to simulate every single step – just the aggregate.”

Just as the discovery of an ideal gas law led to the creation of engines and automobiles, Nemenman believes that such simple biochemical aggregates could drive advancements in health.


How Chimps Deal With Death: Studies Offer Rare Glimpses

ScienceDaily (Apr. 27, 2010) — Two studies in the April 27th issue of Current Biology, a Cell Press publication, offer rare glimpses into the ways that chimpanzees deal with the deaths of those closest to them. In one case, researchers describe the final hours and moment of death of an older female chimp living in a small group at a UK safari park as captured on video. In the other, researchers observed as two chimpanzee mothers in the wild carried their infants’ mummified remains for a period of weeks after they were lost to a respiratory epidemic.

“Several phenomena have at one time or another been considered as setting humans apart from other species: reasoning ability, language ability, tool use, cultural variation, and self-awareness, for example, but science has provided strong evidence that the boundaries between us and other species are nowhere near to being as clearly defined as many people used to think,” said James Anderson of the University of Stirling in reference to his observations of the safari park chimps.

“The awareness of death is another such psychological phenomenon. The findings we’ve described, along with other observations of how chimpanzees respond to dead and dying companions, indicate that their awareness of death is probably more highly developed than is often suggested. It may be related to their sense of self-awareness, shown through phenomena such as self-recognition and empathy towards others.”

Few have witnessed chimps’ response at the moment a member of their group dies, Anderson said. Mother chimps have been known to carry their dead infants, he said, and some observers have seen the commotion that follows when an adult chimp is lost to some sort of sudden trauma.

“In contrast to the frenzied, noisy responses to traumatic adult deaths, the chimpanzees witnessing the female’s death in our case were mostly calm,” Anderson said.

In the days leading up to the chimp’s death, the group was very quiet and paid close attention to her, the researchers report. Immediately before she died, she received much grooming and caressing from the others, who appeared to test her for signs of life as she died. They left her soon after, but her adult daughter returned and remained by her mother all night. When keepers removed the mother’s body the next day, the chimpanzees remained calm and subdued. For several days they avoided sleeping on the platform where the female had died, even though it was normally a favored sleeping spot, and remained subdued for some time after the death.

“In general, we found several similarities between the chimpanzees’ behavior toward the dying female, and their behavior after her death, and some reactions of humans when faced with the demise of an elderly group member or relative, even though chimpanzees do not have religious beliefs or rituals surrounding death,” Anderson said. Whatever the reasons for the chimps’ actions, he added, they suggest that chimpanzees have a highly developed awareness of death.

In the second study, Dora Biro of the University of Oxford and her colleagues witnessed the deaths of five members (including two infants) of a semi-isolated chimpanzee community that researchers have been studying for over three decades in the forests surrounding Bossou, Guinea.

“We observed the deaths of two young infants — both from a flu-like respiratory ailment,” Biro said. “In each case, our observations showed a remarkable response by chimpanzee mothers to the death of their infants: they continued to carry the corpses for weeks, even months, following death.”

In that time, the corpses mummified completely, and the mothers exhibited care of the bodies reminiscent of their treatment of live infants: they carried them everywhere during their daily activities, groomed them, and took them into their day and night nests during periods of rest. Over this extended period, they also began to “let go” of the infants gradually, Biro said. They allowed other individuals within the group to handle them more and more frequently and tolerated longer periods of separation from them, including instances where other infants and juveniles were allowed to carry off and play with the corpses.

Other group members showed some interest in the bodies, but almost without exception, the other chimps showed no aversion toward the corpses. Biro noted that a member of her team made very similar observations following the death of one chimpanzee infant in Bossou back in 1992.

“Chimpanzees are humans’ closest evolutionary relatives, and they have already been shown to resemble us in many of their cognitive functions: they empathize with others, have a sense of fairness, and can cooperate to achieve goals,” Biro said. “How they perceive death is a fascinating question, and little data exist so far concerning chimpanzees’ responses to the passing of familiar or related individuals either in captivity or in the wild. Our observations confirm the existence of an extremely powerful bond between mothers and their offspring which can persist, remarkably, even after the death of the infant, and they further call for efforts to elucidate the extent to which chimpanzees understand and are affected by the death of a close relative or group-mate. This would both have implications for our understanding of the evolutionary origins of human perceptions of death and provide insights into the way chimpanzees interpret the world around them.”


Dalam  rangka meningkatkan  wawasan mengenai pemanfaatan ICT untuk pembelajaran, maupun menambah inovasi para tenaga pendidik dalam kreativitas pengajaran. PPBS Unpad menyelenggarakan workshop  (a) Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi Dalam Pendidikan, Kebijakan dan (b) Penerapan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi dalam Pembelajaran.

Aplikasi pembelajaran softskill ilmu dasar berbasis ICT sudah dilakukan secara luas di berbagai belahan di dunia.  Penerapan ICT biasanya digunakan untuk menunjang penerapan pembelajaran berbasis SCL.  SCL merupakan metode yang diharapkan mampu meningkatkan minat dalam pembelajaran ilmu dasar dan memudahkan untuk memasukkan gagasan yang diinginkan dalam lingkungan kelas.  SCL pada dasarnya mengikutsertakan siswa dalam menemukan kebenaran berbagai masalah atau kasus.

Peserta Workshop:  para guru ilmu dasar  SMA  (Kimia, Fisika, Biologi dan Matematika), dosen PPBS Unpad dan Dinas Pendidikan Propinsi Jawa Barat.


Hari/tanggal       : Rabu, 19 Mei 2010

Waktu                   : 09.00 – 14.30 WIB

Tempat                : Gedung PPBS Unpad.  Kampus Unpad Jatinangor.

Pendaftaran dilayani tanggal  1 – 14 Mei 2010 di:

Sekretariat  PPBS Unpad.  Gedung PPBS Unpad,  Jatinangor Sumedang Tilp. 0227791997  Fax: 0227792419

Peserta workshop tidak dipungut biaya. Panitia dapat memperpanjang dan/atau menutup waktu pendaftaran sesuai kapasitas tempat.  Untuk keterangan lebih lanjut kunjungi website: atau email

Mutations Directly Identifiable in Active Genes

ScienceDaily (Apr. 19, 2010) — Researchers at Uppsala University have developed a new method for identifying genetic variation, including mutations, in active genes. Hopes are strong that the method represents an important research tool that will lead to the development of new diagnostic tests.

The new method, which is directly applicable to cell preparations and tissue sections, should enable studies of the effects of genetic variation in patient samples from a variety of diseases, including, particularly, cancer. The method was developed under the supervision of Mats Nilsson, Professor of Molecular Diagnostics at the Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University. The findings have just been published as an article in the journal Nature Methods.

The method is an elaboration of a technique previously developed by the same research team, involving the use of molecular “padlock probes” to identify specific molecules in individual cells. The probes are able to to distinguish similar genetic sequences, which makes them highly suitable for mutation analysis. Due to the signal amplification associated with padlock probes it is, for the first time, possible to directly identify genetic variation at the mRNA level, that is to say, in molecules produced by active genes, in cells in microscopic preparations, .

“The method allows us to study biological processes in individual cells as opposed to the average states of large numbers of cells,” says Mats Nilsson.

Processes specific to cells that represent a minority in the context of a given sample can thus be identified, since their associated signals can escape being drowned out by those generated by the majority. The method is thus of significant interest to the study of tumour tissue, which contains a mix of cancer and normal cells.

“Hitting the proverbial needle in the haystack should now be possible,” says Mats Nilsson. “This should entail significantly more sensitive and precise diagnostic methods, improving the prospects that patients will receive the treatment they need.”

The method should also make possible various ways of studying the effects of genetic variants on different types of cells and tissues, something that is difficult with methods that rely on preparations comprising a multitude of tissue cells.

The researchers aim to extend the method to allow for parallel identification of multiple molecules and for analysis of biobank material.